JPRS 80025

4 February 1982

Worldwide Report


No. 336

China Addresses Pollution Problems


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JPRS 8002¢

4 Februacy




ou Environmental Management, Economics Published (LUN HUANJING GUANLI, Feb 81)... cece cccccccccevcccccccceeccccessees

Preface to Publication, Chen Xiping

Extent of Environmental Problem, Yu Guangyuan Ways to Strengthen Research, Li Chaobo Development of Environmental Science, Xue Baoding Environmental Economics, Liu Wen

Environmental Protection, Improvement, Education Work Begun



Environmental Science Tasks Outlined, Xiong Yi Education Work Stressed, Mao Danhe

Ecological Forum

Environmental Protection Association Yunnan Environmental Protection Pollution-Fighting Vegetation

Handline of Pollution Cases Outlined

(Various sources, various d Arbitration Agency Planned, Luo Dianrong, Deng Jianxi Chemical Polluters Fined, Yang Xiaoling, Liu Shouchang Symposium in Japan

Spokesman Denies Radioactive Leaks Report

-a- [III = WW = 139)

Water Pollution Control, Conservation Liforts Underway (Various sources, various dates)... ccc ccc cece ccvcvecccccseseseseeses

Beijing Projects, Tao Baokai, Ling Bo Beijing Addresses Drainage Problems, Li Jiangiang Wuhan Research Association, Gao Jianging

Bacteria Used in Wastewater Treatment, Tang Fubao, Chen Xinxiang Clean Up Pollution at Baiyangdian, Yin Zheng, Bai Feng


Briefs Shanghai River P>llution Meeting

Achievements, Tasks of Marine Environmental Science Outlined (Various SOUFCES, VETIOUS GATES). ccccccccccccccccccoccccccccccccccecs

Achievements, Future Tasks, Guo Fang

UV Spectrophotometry in Oil Pollution Identification, Zheng Shungqin,

Huang Huarui

Determination of Zinc in Seafood, Yin Yi, Wen Congjiang

Dalian Meeting Studies Pollution Threat

Noise, Electromagnetic Pollution Studied

(GUANGMING RIBAO, BEIJING RIBAO, various dates) ....--eeeereeeeeereecees

Noise Pollution Worsening, Fang Danqun, Feng Genquan

New Advances Using Computers

Briefs Nei Monggol Environment Anshan Compl ex Environmentai Engineering Society Tilin Environmental Pollution Desulfurizing Agent

Relation Between Population Increase, Environmental Quality Drawing Attention (Shang Yichu; GUANGMING RIBAO, 11 Sep 81)..........





Preface to Publication

Taiyuan LUN HUANJING GUANLI [ON ENVLRONMENTA’ MANAGEMENT] in Chinese, First Edition Jul 80, First Printing Feb 81, pp 1-2

(Preface by Chen Xiping [7115 6006 1627], president of the China Environmental Management, Economics and Law Society, May 1980. “Editor's Note: Comrade Chen Xiping is also deputy director of the Environmental Protection Leading Group Staff Office in the State Council aid vice president of the China Environmental Sciences Society” ]

[Text } This publication, ON ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, is a collection of 21 papers presented at the February 1980 National Symposium on Environmental Manage- ment, Economics and Law. It is the first collection of papers on environmental management published in China and should play an important role in the development of environmental work.

Research on environmental management as a science has just begun and the publica-

tion of this book is a beginning, with the hope that it will draw the attention of researchers, educators and environmenta! management workers to the importance of

this topic, and that they will actively develop the study of environmental manage- r ment, promore rapid progress in this new field and contribute to the improvement

of environmental quality.

The environmental issue is in essence an economic one. Since the environment is a resource and an important factor of productivity, environmental pollution and ecological destruction represent new problems accompanying the development of production, and they interact with economic development. The only way to solve the environmental problem is to combine it with production and view the economy and the environment as ‘wo aspects of the same entity in the course of developing production, so that they may enjoy coordinated development. In other words, China's environmental protection problems should be solved in accordance with the basic economic principles of secialism and on the basis of the actual situation in China, and this should be carried out in a planned manner in keeping with the principle of proportion. There are a great many social science issues that we have solved by combining theory and practice. Today, many problems if environ- mental management, environment :il economics, and environmental law require urgent study: the status and function of environmental protection in national economic

development; the goals of environmental protection planning and the system and methodology for planning indicators; the economic benefits of environmental protection and environment-relited economic policies; environmental management systems, including planning systems, organizational systems, management methods and responsibility systems; the theory and framework of environmental protection legislation; judicial organization for carrying out environmental protection laws, mediation systems, and monitoring systems; and the use of executive, economic, legal and educational means in environmental management. Obviously, investigation of these problems means a lot to the success of China's environ- mental protection and to promotion of socialist modernization construction as well. Following the basic principles of Marxism and consolidating our own prac- tical experiences, we should conduct in-depth studies and, in the meantime, learn and use for reference the useful things of other nations. Then, based on the situation in China, we will create environmental social science disciplines based on the characteristics of China.

ON ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT is the first collection of papers published by the China Environmental Management, Economics and Law Society. Vice President Liu Wen [0491 2429] of the Society and Lin Daolian [2651 6670 3425], Peng Tianjie [1756 1131 2638] and Chen Dongsheng [7115 2767 3932] on the editorial! staff handled the editing. In the spirit of the “double-hundred” policy and the prin- ciple of academic freedom, we have included papers with different academic view- points. Many problems are still awaiting a general discussion and in-depth study. With the publication of this book, I hope many more articles and books will be published.

Extent of Environmental Problem Termed ‘Grave’

Taiyuan LUN HUANJING GUANLI [ON ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT} in Chinese, First Edition Jul 80, First Printing Feb 81, pp 1-40

[Article by Yu Guangyuan [0060 0342 6678], vice minister of the State Scientific and Technological Commission and adviser to the China Environmental Management, Economics and Law Society: “Environmental Problems, Environmental Work and Environmental Science”™]

[Excerpts] There is a certain realm in the life of our society regarding which the cadres and people of our nation are beginning to be aware of the problems, but on the whole the understanding is far from adequate; some work has begun in this realm, but these efforts do not come close to meeting the objective needs; some institutions are beginning to be established, but the organizations are very incomplete; we are beginning to have some specialists in this realm, but a power- ful team is yet to be formed. The realm | am referring to is the environment.

I wish to express some rudimentary opinions on the three aspects of the environ- ment: environmental problems, environmental work, and environmental science.

I. Environmental Problems

In Part I, I will discuss environmental problems on the basis of six points: 1) What is the environment and what do we understand it to mean today? 2) What are the environmental problems? 3) The history of environmental problems.

< aly ace euvironmental problems receiving so much worldwide attention today and how have the problems come about ix the last 20 years? 5) interrelationship of environmental problems, people’s awareness of the problems, and the social systen. 6) What are the environmental problems in China today, what is the <urrent status of China's environmental problems, and what has led to China's serious environmen‘al problems?

The term “environment” is always used relative to some main organism, which has its own internal world as well as an external world surrounding it. The externai world which has more than minimal or negligible effects on the main organism, surrounds it and acts on it, constitutes the “environment” of the main organism. The environment in our discussion surrounds the main organism of human society. For example, the entire earth -- in particular, the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, the soil and lithosphere and the biosphere on the surface of the earth -- is the environment in which the human race exists and develops.

Point 6 above deals with today’s environmental problems in China. What is the nature of China's current environmental problems? Up to now, China's industry and agriculture have not been developed to the 1960's level of the world's indus- trially developed nations. However, the environmental problems in Chira have reached a very serious degree, that is, serious pollution problems already exist in China. When the Japanese exposed environmental pollution in their country in the 1960's, we did not have this awareness. In China the environmental pollution problem was gradually realized later, and by the time we became aware of the prob- lem, pollution of the environment was already very serious. Environmental pollu- tion in China is, of course, related to the industrial construction since the revolution, but it is not entirely proportionate to the development of production. The aggravation of environmental pollution has been more rapid than the development of industrial and agricultural production, and furthermore, during the rampages of the “gang of four,” production dropped and yet environmental pollution increased rapidly. In 1976, just before the "gang of four” was crushed, China's national economy was on the verge of collapse, but environmental pollution was more serious than ever. One can see the following trend: the more destruction and chaos in the national economy, the more serious the environmental pollution. Environmental pollution in capitalist countries is naturally related to their capitalist system and to the fact that capitalists are only after profit, that profit is their only concern. In China, we should have done better. If we had known about environ- mental protection and if we had paid attention to the problem from the very beginning, it would not have deteriorated to the present grave state. In addition, with the 9.6 million square kilometers of land in China, how can this little bit of industry cause such serious environmental damage? Our environmental problem is admittedly related to our industrial development, but for such a meager industry to cause such serious pollution is to a large extent due to subjective causes

Ot course, the subjective causes we are referring to here are not entirely because we did not do a good job. Comrade Xue Baoding [5641 5508 7844] once said that he handled 50 of the 156 projects during the first 5-year plan. In these 50 con- struction projects, attention was rarely paid to environmental protection measures, and very poor measures they were, if any. This is not unusual, as in the early 1950's there was not yet sufficient awareness of environmental problems; the ques- tion had not yet been raised with any seriousness. But later, for a long period

of time, we lacked awareness of these problems, and that is the reason for today's zrim situation. Now the environmental problems in China are getting worse -- ve note in particular the serious pollution in Songhuajianag -—- but still no forceful measures are being taken. In China many pollution problems which are clear-cut from an environmental protection viewpoint have long been ignored. Take produc- tion layout. Many plants iuat discharge poisonous sewage just had to be built upstream of rivers, of all places, and it took only a few plants to pollute an entire river. In one city, several chemical plants just happened to “hook up with" water supply plants of all things. Having a chemical plant and a water supply plant side by side, the water source becomes badly polluted. Plants emit- ting poisonous gas just had to be built in densely populated major cities, even in Beijing, the capital. As far as capital construction goes, there was a long period when neither environmental protection nor treatment of the “three wastes” were given serious consideration during design and construction. Even after the environmental protection issue was reised, some people still paid no attention. There were those who only viewed the problem from the production point of view and even claimed that environmental protection was a burden and avoided environ- mental measures wherever possible. As a result, the environmental situation in China kept deteriorating, even after the discovery that the environment in China was badly polluted. Here we have only discussed industrial pollution; if forest damage and ecological damage are also included, the problem is even more serious. Erosion and soil water loss in the loess plateau area in Northwest China did not begin just in the past 10 years, and it continues to exist. However, forest depletion in the Southwest and in the Northeast are things which deveiuped over the past 30 years. Due to the serious depletion of forests in the Southwert, many people now believe that without forceful measures to alter the trend, the Chang Jiang will eventually run the risk of becoming another Huang He. Some are also concerned that the Southwest may become an arid land like Northwest China is today; the land cf paradise [Sichuan Province] may turn into a poor land, and the lower reaches of the Chang Jiang may no longer be the country of rice and fish. Large-scale reclamation, if not preceeded by detailed studies of ecological equilibrium and conducted with prudence, could also lead to undesirable results.

In China the environmental problem includes not only industrial pollution but also other problems such as forest depletion. This is one aspect that puts China at even more of a disadvantage compared with Western Europe and North America.

In the 1920's, cultivation and reclamation of wasteland in the United States led to serious drought and the occurrence of (ust storms; that practice was later corrected with great effort. Today, forest protection is closely observed in Western Europe, North America and Japan, but not in China.

On the one hand, environmental problems and pollution are the products of modern industry, but on the other hand, they are also the products of the underdevelopment of modern industry. This is because a well-developed modern industry and advance environmental protection will alleviate the environmental problems. In this respect, «are handicapped by the lack of adequate material and technology to solve the «environmental problems.

Finally, I wish to discuss one more point -- let it be point 7. As long as people live in the world and carry out various production and other social activities to obtain material needed in their lives, it is impossible to avoid pollution

completely. This is because iiving produces waste and production produces waste; it would be impossible to live and to produce if pollution were to be absolutely avoided. In other words, pollution is inevitable. Of course, pollution is not something we desire, but since it is inevitable, it can >be considered a necessity. This is like the fact that one must heve some ailment in one’s life, and sometimes even a tew serious illnesses cannot be avoided. Sicknesses are inevitable. The environmental problem is in the same situation. Absolute avoidance of pollution is impossible, but it is entirely possible to greatly reduce pollution and dis- ruption of the environment and tc transform many cases of pollution into positive factors. Once the environment has been polluted and damaged, efforts can be made to restore it, but this is more difficult. The notion of requiring absolutely no pollution is metaphysical, and we are realists; when urgent needs must produce pollution, we can live with this pollution. When one is in a war, for instance, can one still ask how such pollution a falling bomb will produce? The answer is no. In 1942 and 1943, a majer production effort was made in Yan’an. Wasteland was cultivated for crop planting, hill after hill was turned into cropland, and substantial damage was done to the forests. At that time no one knew what environ- mental science was, it was just considered a shame, but it was thought that it was due to the pressing needs of war and there was no way around it. But now we are mot at war and we do not have a warlike pressing situation. We are now engaged in long-term socialis!: co-struction, so we should consider environmental problems on the fundamental basis of long-term socialist construction and give environment an important status. When we talk about socialist construction, we cannot avoid the objectives of socialist production and the goal of the socialist economy. The goal of the socialist economy is to improve people’s lives and to satisfy the people's needs for their livelihood to the maximum possible extent. All our economic activities and production activities are aimed at thie goal. We must not jeopardize people's lives in the environmental area in order to produce goods that satisfy the people’s needs. The reason is obvious: disregarding the environment and looking only at production is not consistent with the objectives of the socialist economy. When we undertake construction, we are thinking of the long term, not just the immediate interests; we are considering people’s long-term interests and the interests of generations to come. We must not jeopardize the fundamental interest for the sake of current interest. We must treat the environ mental problem on the basis of long-term socialist construction.

Il. Environmental Wor*

l use the term “environmental work” because it involves more than environmental protection. It includes creating sicro environment, improving che macro environ nent and maintaining a tavorabie + ironment. Prevention of pollution and manage- ment of a damaged environment are only parts of the environmental task. it should be pointed o5*, however, that the most urgent task today is environmental prote< tion. <Any task ha i) definitive goal and is conducted for a specific circumstance, er4 environmental work is no exception. So what is the circumstance? For China the most coospicuous probiem is pollution, that is, the destruction of desirabie

ivironsent. The emphasis of our work should therefore be placed on the most

rgent probiem. Even though environmental work has many facets, the emphasis ihould Se made ciear. What is the condition of owr environment? It has been said that scwe people are keeping the pollution situation secret, mostly from foreigners,

for fear of embarrassment. Comrade Wang Jianmin [| 3769 0256 3046], in sending me

some material, said that pollution of the atmosphere, ocean and surface water

and problems of traffic, sanitation, social order and housing are very difficult to keep secret because anybody can see them. Pollution of underground water also shows up as increased water hardness and deposits in boiled water; how can they

be kept secret? Besides, we are now also introducing foreign capital and foreign technology and asking foreigners to modify our old plants. They can see things very clearly; how can secrets be kept’? An American delegation came to Beijing

and brought a particle detector. They made some measurements at Tiananmen Square and everything showed up. Measurements made in a class room at the Institute of Environmental Chemistry of the Chinese Academy of Sciences showed that the measured results exceeded the level permitted by U.S. environmental standards by several times. I went to Japan Jast year, and there also 1 found it is exceed- ingly difficult to keep secrets from foreign visitors. The former president of Tokyo University, Ito Ichiro, came to China to investigate environmental pollution. He is a law expert and is doing research on environmental law. He asked me where he should go to see pollution and I said -- I had to be honest with him -- you can see it wherever you go. Our environmental pollution is that serious, and that is the truth. After all, they are the experts and they cannot be fooled. I don't think it is a good idea to keip the environmental pollution situation from the public. Whether the environmntal situation is good or bad, it should be made known to the people. The cau:res of environmental problems should also be made known to the people so that tie public can make correct analyses. in order to do a good job of environmental protection, not only do we have to work herd, but we should also get the public's attention and have everyone work together. Our enterpiieces and our government naturally are responsible for some causes of pol- lution, and the public should also share the responsibility. For example, because the traffic is bad in the cities, automobile drivers have to beep their horns, which in turn makes the noise even worse. I have seen the following data in the Environmental Protection Jffice: the traffic noise intensities in downtown Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin, Nanjing, Hangzhou, Wuhan, Guangzhou, Chonqing, and Harbin are all above 80 decibels, much worse than the traffic noise in London,

New York or Tokyo. There are more than 2 million automobiles in Tokyo; do we

have that many in Beijing? Beijing has only 140,000 automobiles, and yet the noise in Beijing is 9 decibels higher than that in Tokyo. This also goes to

prove th. point I made earlier, that aany types of pollution in China are not proportionate to the degree of production development. For Beijing, after ail, there are 140,000 automobiles. whereas Hangzhou has only a few thousand autom- biles, but the noise in Hingzlou is also worse than in Tokyo. Granted, automobiles are not the only source of treffic noise, but they are probably the primary source. Here we have to ask what causes the poor traffic conditions; doesn’t poor traffic involve the problem of the puw»lic's attention to traffic regulations? Here we also have a habit problem. and we cannot reduce traffic noise without educating the public. Of course, there are certain backgrounds leading to the situation

we have now, such as the large number of bicycles and pedestrians. Tokyo has numerous subway routes, but no public transportation vehicles such as buses or electric cars above ground. All the public transit vehicles are underground, and there are only taxis on the street. We do not yet have the means to do this in Beijing, but a ma_or effort to improve the traffic can still reduce the noise level greatly.




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GCSBata, 20G i Wis work. Aithough the ; » it stili goes on. I :s that in 1978 and S are 5 percent highe ive. 3.0 percent fii.ghe rding t statistica. level above the nati 2st two hazardous mate ft ervsion and soii wa Be ne-Sixtt <t the a Way, giong with SU0U,UUl t to the total annual In 30 years, 60,000 sq md water level is dr ite is ) meter ¢t ire werned that i? nion,. i iew of these ection is to reverse t "ec know i you agree : « : : 1.» set t . ct Wiii t continue zon ve annot > Do you think we can niy stop berrowing om is in Taiyuan | was to vironmental protection eel. in recent years, 4

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the “hinese Academy of Social Sciences has also organized a4 preparatory group tc arrange the establishment of an institute of sociology. Environzental problems should be a subject of study in sociology; in foreign countries, environmental scectoiogy has already been established. We should conduct systematic study of the social problems cause; by ti environment and investigate to what extent environmenr2! pollution has affected people's health. Earlier we discussed the problesm of poisonous gas anc dust in the atmosphere; standards of permissible level are determined on the basis of medical science research; the enviro.imenta!l testing branch has carried out cbservations and seasured the actual contents.

On this basis, environmental sociologists can then study the effects on people living in such an environment, the rates of sickness an! disease aque to various causes, and their variations acd regularity. nvironmenta!l sociology should also investigate the effects of pollution on residents’ family life znd sociological psyc ology. Environmental pollution causes gsany social problems, some very conspicuous and acute. I learned from one source that fights have broken out in i number of places because of environmental problems. In Shanghai, some alley factories produce tremendous noise day and night. aod the reighbors cannot stand it. The odor of spray caint tras som plants is un>earadle, and causes respira- tory diseases in residents living nearby. There were numerous complaints, but solutions were never yvound. Finally, people resorted to violence. Environmental sociologists should also study euch conflicts and sort out the consequences of pollution and what we should do in environmental work. Through the scientific investigation of environmenta! sociology, the status of environmental problems can be understood more thoroughly, more emphasis can be placed on the environment, and locations with acute environmental problems can be identified in order to pr - mote an earlier resolution of the problea. The study of environmental sociology would help us in accurately and forcefully publicizing the probien.

Ways To strengthen Research

Taiyuan "UN HUANJING CUANLI [ON ENVIRONMENTAL MANACEMENT)! in Chinese, First Edition Jul 80, First Printing Feb 81, pp 41-51

[Article by Li Chaobo [2621 6389 0130), director of the Environmental Protection Office, Environmental Protection Leading Group, Stat« Council, and president of the China Environmental Sciences Soctety: “Strive for an laproved Environmental Management Standard in China”)

[Excerpts] From experience we have increasingly realized that environmental management, environmental economics and environmental law are the important components of environmental science and that they are major scientific bases for good environmental work. Today, we sust quickly organize academic talent in these areas, form teams of specia)ists, speed up the pace of scientific research and contribute to the improvement of China's environment.

In this article we present a brief introduction to the current situation of China's environment and some preliminary views on how to strengthen scientific research on environmental management, environmental economics and environmental law.

lL. China's Environmental Situation

The party and government of China pay great attention to environmental protection work. In late 1978, the emphasis of the party's work was shifted to socialist modernization construction, and with the new focus on national economic readjust- ment, restructure, consolidation and improvement, the Party Central Committee approved and transmitted the document "Essentials of Reports on Environmental Protection Work." In September 1979, the Fifth National Congress Standing Com- mittee issued the "(Provisional) Environmental Protection Act of the People's Republic of China." These two important documents combined the historical experience and lessons in China's development of environmental protection, prescribed policies and measures for China's environmental protection, and marked the beginning of a new era in China's work on environmental protection.

For over a year, various regions and departments in China have strived to carry “ut these two important documents, made new progress on environmental protection

and created a new atmosphere:

l. Environmental problems continue to receive the leadership's attention. Lead-

ing comrades in many provinces and municipalities are taking the lead in publicizing environmental protection by looking into the problems in person, freque:utly checking

the work, and urging industrial and mining enterprises to control their pollution. Many of the industrial and agricultural departments are paying attention to environmental protection while they move ahead on production construction. Some of the serious polluting enterprises have reduced their emission of the "three wastes" by combining pollution control with the drive to boost production, reduce spending, develop potential, and restructure %nd strengthen business management. Municipalities and water zones have made progress in treating pollution in varying degrees.

2. Because the vast population has increasingly realized the importance of environmental protection, their growing concern and strong pleas have furthered the progress of environmental protection work.

3. The question of across-the-board management of the environment has been put on the agenda. Environmental protection has gradually progressed from simple pollution treatment to the pr» ention of environmental pollution and of ecological

destruction by a combination of ecenomic, legislative, administrative and educa- tional methods. The development of environmental management is an important step in environmental protection. Many provinces and municipal*ties have established such systems as assessment of the “three simultaneous," issuance of smoke and dust elimination certificates, and control of poisonous material supply, and have obtained good results in pollution prevention and treatment. Some cities have tried economic measures such as collecting pollution fees and fines, and are

beginning to see the effects.

4. Environmental management institutions and environmental monitoring and research

have been strengthened. International co operation and exchange activities are on

the rise.

5. Environmental protection policies have been further strengthened, and *he work of publicizing scientific knowledge has been stepped up. More and more reports are appearing in the newspapers, on the radio and in magazines, effectively publicizing and promoting environmental protection.

All this shows that prospects for China's environmental protection are very good and getting better. But on the whole, pollution of the environment and harm to the natural resources are not yet under control, and in local areas they may even be getting worse. The main evidence is the continued rise in the amount of waste dumped into the environment by industries and by city residents. The inevitable end result is undoubtedly the continued deterioration of the environmental

quality of cities and waters. In today's China the disruption of the natural environment and ecological balance are even more serious problems than industrial pollution. According to initial surveys, 1.6 billion tons of mud and sand are washed into the middle reaches of the Huang He every year, causing the riverbed

to rise at a rate of 3 inches per year. China did not have large torests to begin with; now the coverage rate is only 12.7 percent, which is 120th among nations of the world. Unplanned logging and destruction of forests due to reclamation and forest fires have brought a series of bad results, such as changes in climate, soil and water loss, and aggravation of flood and drought. There are also serious problems regarding water resources: in addition to the pollution from industrial and residential emissions, deployable water resources have continually decreased due to the blind making of iand from lakes and excessive use »f ground water.

Pollutiouw of the environment and destruction of natural resources not only affect people's everyday lives but also hinder the growth of production. Disproportions in the national economy can be readjusted with a few years' determined effort.

But once the environment is polluted, and especially when the ecological balance is upset, it takes several decades or even 100 years to restore it, if restoration is possible at all. Therefore, in order to realize the four modernizations, great attention should be placed on environmental protection.

Il. Solving Environmental Problems During the Rapid Development of Production

Today China is going all out for socialist modernization construction. The mission of modernization is multifaceted and requires a general balance of all aspects.

We should not stress one area and neglect other areas. In the past we learned

the lesson of disproportionality, and now we must correct the error. Pollution of our environment and damage to our natural resources are also caused by unbalanced development of production and lack of environmental protection. Today, there are almost 400,000 enterprises in China, and they are the bases on which we are striving toward the great goal of the four modernizations. At the same time, for reasons involving knowledge, experience, economic ability and scientific tech- nology, the great majority of these 400,00 enterprises do not have environmental protection facilities and have become the principal sources of pollution in China. China is a vast land with abundant resources, but for a long time we have concen- trated on development and deployment and have failed to value and protect these resources. This has led (to many problems. As we all know, most of the developed nations in the world have taken the tortuous route of developing first and managing later, and they have paid the heavy price of sacrificing their environment. Can

we avoid this tortuous route? I think so. First, we have a superior socialist


system, the people's system, and the goal of production development is to improve people's lives. ‘ihe purpose of our production development is in total agreement with our goal of environmental protection. Second, we have a planned economy, which allows us to coordinate the development i- different areas through overall balance, and environmental protection is entirely compatible with other areas of economic endeavors. Third, a lot of experience and examples have been accumulated, both here and abroad, to guide us. Under the leadership of the party and the government and with the concerted efforts of all the people, we can definitely avoid that tortuous route, or turn back from it before we have gone very far.

Ili. Getting Organized and Working for Improvement of Environmental Management, Environmental Economics and Environmental Legislation Standards

The 1980's is a key period in our socialist modernization; it is also a key period for China's environmental work. In carrying out our Chinese-style modernization, we should combine production with environmental protection. In the 1980's there will be major developments in various construction enterprises in China, and environmental problems will also become more and more prominent and important.

if we can get a grip on environmental work in this decade, we will be laying a firm foundation for solving the environmental problems in China. If we cannot get a grip on the problem in this decade, we will probably take the tortuous road of construction first and pollution management later. If we are to do a good job of environmental protection, we must work hard to improve the scientific level of environmental protection and do everything according to the rules of science. Environmental management, environmental economics and environmental law are brand new disciplines in China, and their research strength is still weak; great efforts must be made to obtain some research results quickly.

Scientific research should be developed by bringing all positive factors into play. To begin with, environmental protection branches at various levels must strengthen their research. An environmental protection management worker should not only have a knowledge of natural science, but more importantly, must also possess a knowledge of social science regarding environmental management, environ- mental economics and environmental law. We hope that all